Health is widely integrated in the Pomurje regional development plan for 2007-2013, in terms improving health inequalities, health care, and the role of health in socioeconomic development. However, Structural Funds in Slovenia are managed at the national level and public health considerations in the country’s operational programmes mainly concern direct investments on health care. Even though the interplay between health and the environment is punctually taken into account, there is substantial room for improvement for the integration of relevant health stakeholders at regional level in the decisionmaking process.

Pomurje region has benefitted from targeted development assistanceover the past decade, which has given local and regional stakeholders the capacity to cooperate on development issues and a good understanding of the importance of public health for socioeconomic development. This has however not always translated into nationally-managed Structural Fund programmes.

All three Structural Fund programmes in Slovenia are managed at the national level. There is one investment priority which targets regions directly; approximately EUR 620 million or 15% of total allocations are reserved for this priority. Many of the references to health in the NSRF and the three OPs refer to health care systems and direct investments aimed at improving efficiency and coverage. Health inequalities are considered in this perspective. The linkages between environment and health are taken into account, particularly for the benefits derived from investments targeting energy efficiency, air pollution and water supply infrastructure. For all programmes the Strategic Environmental Assessment considered health impacts, but mainly the linkages between environmental impacts and human health.

A special nationally funded government programme for competitiveness in the Pomurje region is under implementation during 2010-2015, in recognition of lower standard of living and socioeconomic status of the region. The programme will coordinate all public investment in the region and is linked to the regional development plan. Otherwise, Structural Fund programmes in Slovenia are nationally managed, and regional stakeholders note that there is no regional-level overview on what projects are funded and how they jointly contribute to regional goals.



Background information

The Slovenian region of Pomurje has a strong tradition of local and regional level cooperation on health and development issues, and many stakeholders firmly understand the importance of public health for socioeconomic development. Nevertheless, this has been difficult to translate into nationally managed Structural Fund programmes, which tend to focus on heavy infrastructure and other highly tangible investment priorities. The case of Pomurje and its approach to regional development and Structural Funds programmes as a small and economically disadvantaged region provides some interesting insights on how local and regional stakeholders integrate health into development programmes.

One of the smaller new member states that joined the EU in 2004, the entire territory of Slovenia is considered a NUTS 1[1] region, meaning that Structural Fund programmes are designed, managed and implemented at the national level. Nevertheless, Slovenia has a long tradition of regionalism and local-self government. There are 210 municipalities in Slovenia, and these have the authority to manage assets, plan and facilitate economic and spatial development, and manage local public services, including primary health care, among other tasks.[2] One of the three nationally-managed Operational Programmes (OP) in Slovenia is dedicated to regional development, and contains separate programmes for each of the 12 smaller “statistical regions” (NUTS 3 level), including Pomurje region.

Figure 1: Map of Pomurje region in Slovenia

Description: pomurska map.gif

Pomurje region is situated in the north east of the country bordering Austria, Hungary and Croatia, and represents 6.6% of the country’s total land surface. Its population has decreased in recent years due to negative natural growth and outward migration.

Table 1: The Pomurje region at-a-glance

Population (inh., 2009)


Surface area (km2)


GDP per capita in EUR  (2008)*


GDP per capita as % of EU 27 (PPS, 2008)*


Cohesion Policy status


Life expectancy at birth, male (2008)*


Life expectancy at birth, female (2008)*


*figures for NUTS 2 region of Eastern Slovenia which includes Pomurje region

In terms of socio-economic development, Pomurje lags behind the rest of Slovenia, with GDP per capita about 65% of the Slovenian average and the lowest in Slovenia.[3] Its registered unemployment rate in 2010 was 15.9% compared to a national average of 9.1%, and the percentage of population receiving financial social assistance (9.03%) doubles that of the national average.

The region is mainly agricultural; this sector accounts for 13.4% of the regional GDP and 20% of the total working population are farmers.[4] It is also one of the most attractive regions in Slovenia for tourism; touristic attractions include natural features for health tourism, hunting and rural tourism including trails along the Mura river.

Life expectancy in the Pomurje region is the lowest in Slovenia; at 69.2 years for males in 2003 it was about 4.8 years lower than in central Slovenia.[5]

Figure 2: GDP per capita in PPS, Eastern Slovenia

Source: Eurostat; GDP per capita in PPS is Gross Domestic Product in purchasing power standards.



Policy and institutional overview

Cohesion Policy

Structural Fund programmes in Slovenia are all managed at the national level by a single Managing Authority, the Government Office for Local Self-Government and Regional Policy. Within this government office, a Cohesion Policy department is responsible for planning and implementing Structural Fund programmes. Individual ministries have the role of intermediate body and are, in some cases, given the task to implement parts of Structural Fund programmes.

There is limited regional-level managing responsibility for Structural Fund programmes in Slovenia.  The OP for Strengthening Regional Development Potentials does contain an investment priority dedicated to the development and functioning of regions as effective units. Projects funded through this priority should be based on “bottom-up initiative” coming from the regional development plans of each of the 12 statistical regions, including Pomurje. This investment priority is still implemented and managed at the national level, meaning that the regional and local beneficiary institutions prepare and respond to tenders for projects that are evaluated and financed by the national-level Managing Authority.

Each of the 12 statistical regions in Slovenia has a regional development agency. In Pomurje, the Mura Regional Development Agency Ltd (RDA Mura) was founded by the region’s 26 municipalities, chambers of commerce and various private companies. RDA Mura promotes the development of the region and links and coordinates initiatives between state, local and private sector actors, including EU-funded projects in the region.[6] The RDA is responsible for coordinating the preparation of the regional development plan 2007-2013, which serves (among other things) as an input to the national development strategy and the Structural Funds programming process.

In addition to the EU Structural Fund support, there is a special development support programme funded by the national government for Pomurje region (see 3.5 below).

Health sector

The current health system in Slovenia was established by basic health care legislation that came into force in 1992. The Ministry of Health is responsible for health policy development, implementation and evaluation; health strategy and service design; financing the hospital sector; and international relations in health care.

The Institute of Public Health of Republic of Slovenia is responsible for public health; it covers communicable diseases, health statistics and research, environmental health, and health promotion. There are also regional-level institutes, including the Institute of Public Health Murska Sobota in Pomurje region, which are coordinated by the national institute. The regional institutes also have responsibility for coordination of public health issues across other sectors, including the development of programmes, concepts, tools and research activities.[7]

In 2005, the regional public health institute for Pomurje established the Centre for Health and Development (CHD). This centre consists of an inter-disciplinary team of experts who work in the fields of food science and nutrition, physical activity, project management, product development, and other fields. The CHD works predominantly on inter-disciplinary projects that integrate health objectives into local economic development priorities, such as the development of organic agriculture and local food products and health tourism.

Inter-sectoral cooperation and networking for health and development: Programme MURA

There is a strong tradition of regional-level networking in support of health and development in Pomurje region, which traces back to 2000-01, when surveys and development analysis in Slovenia showed that the country faced serious regional development inequalities, which were mainly attributable to wide regional differences in health and lifestyle indicators. In this context, the government of Slovenia developed a pilot programme for investment for health and development in the Pomurje region. The resulting investment programme, known as the “Programme MURA” was created in 2002 to address the economic, social and environmental determinants of health to improve health and quality of life in the Pomurje region, through a multi-stakeholder cooperation approach.  Among the objectives of the programme were to identify and remove main obstacles for better health and socioeconomic development of the region; to improve the regional state of health indicators; and to spread knowledge on the economic, social and behavioural determinants of health and quality of life.[8]

Among the many important outputs and lessons learned so far from the Programme MURA is the value of inter-sectoral cooperation for socioeconomic development and health gains. The programme is run through a regional partnership network, coordinated by the CHD and the regional public health institute. The network includes local authorities, schools, health care centres, the media, the regional development agency, chambers of commerce and specific business and agricultural associations. According to the CHD director, these institutions still cooperate easily and regularly on matters related to health and well-being, including on the preparation of the regional development plan for Structural Funds 2007-2013 programming.

In connection with the Programme MURA work, Pomurje region was the first region in Slovenia to develop a formal strategic document in this area, the Health promotion strategy and action plan for tackling health inequalities in Pomurje region, the result of a bilateral project between the Flemish and Slovenian governments.[9] Pomurje was the first region in Slovenia to prepare such a cross-sectoral strategy targeting health inequalities, and this approach to regional development persists in the region today.



Health in the Structural Fund programmes

Three Operational Programmes (OPs) govern the use of Structural Funds in Slovenia. An OP for Environmental and transport infrastructure development covers large-scale infrastructure in these sectors, mainly funded from the Cohesion Fund. The OP for Strengthening Regional Development Potentials covers a range of ERDF-funded investments, including specific regional development programmes prepared by the regions themselves. Finally, the OP Human Resources Development, funded by the ESF, targets training, employment and social inclusion through work opportunities. All three have been prepared on the basis of the National Strategic Reference Framework (NSRF), the national development plan, and regional development plans.

In addition to Structural Funds assistance, a dedicated government funding programme supports regional development in Pomurje. The programme, funded nationally, is integrated with Structural Funds spending.

National Strategic Reference Framework

Structural Fund programmes in Slovenia are prepared on the basis of the NSRF; regional development plans from the 12 statistical regions contribute to this process.

There are a number of references to the role of public health in the NSRF for Slovenia 2007-2013. Health inequalities between regions are mentioned in the document, although primarily within the context of health care systems. Health is also considered a part of the overall social development objective in the document. The impact of poor health on long-term unemployment of vulnerable groups is considered, as well as the health impacts (costs) of increased individual transport by car at the expense of urban public transport. Health and safety at work, including the need to inform workers and employers about occupational health and risks is considered as an issue within the context of human resource development.

The majority of health-related information and analysis contained in the NSFR refers to health care systems, improving the quality of care across the country (and addressing health inequalities), and optimising the efficiency of health care services, mainly through improved use of information and communication technology (e-health programmes).

OP for Environmental and transport infrastructure development

This OP aims at strengthening conditions for economic growth through ensuring sustainable mobility, and improving the quality of the environment through suitable and sustainable infrastructure. Another objective is to work towards more balanced regional development across the country.

While health is not directly targeted, the linkages between environmental improvement and protection and human health are clearly referenced in the relevant sections of the programme. The health benefits of reductions in air pollution and extension infrastructure for the supply of drinking water are the two main areas where health gains are expected in the programme. The extension of health gains to overall quality of life of the population is noted in the programme’s strategy for development.

Also noteworthy is the emphasis given to the impacts of the programme on human health by the Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA); authorities are clearly aware of the health gains from environmental infrastructure investments.

Within the investment priorities, there are some references to health gains and health determinants. Priority 2, Road and port infrastructure, refers to the improvement of transport safety through improving the motorway network and bypasses, and better educating and monitoring of drivers. Priority 5, which covers environmental protection in the water sector, cites improving health status of the population as a goal. Indicators included in the priority to measure this are population serviced by clean water supply and sewerage; decrease of exposure to pesticides and other unhealthy pollutants. Priority 6, on sustainable use of energy, foresees reductions in air pollution and subsequent contributions to the health of the population.

OP Human resources development

The OP for human resources development aims at improvements in the labour market, social inclusion, education and training, and institutional capacity, with the overall aim of contributing to higher growth and economic competitiveness. The linkages between poor health and resulting high costs for individuals and the state, as well as the negative impacts this has on employment and social inclusion are part of the overall programme rationale, and are specifically mentioned in the context of investment in more efficient health care services. The importance of work absences due to illness and/or injury and employee well-being are discussed in an economic context.

Within the specific investment priorities for this OP, health is directly mentioned only in the context of efficiency improvements to health care systems. These would be realised through investments in information and communication technologies and in education, training and other support for public sector health care workers, within the Priority 5 Institutional and administrative capacity.

OP Strengthening regional development potentials

The OP for strengthening regional development potentials seeks to foster the country’s competitiveness while ensuring more balanced regional development. It is worth noting that almost 65% of the ERDF financial resources available for this OP are earmarked for goals directly related to the Lisbon agenda, which is a relatively high level for a new member state.

The programme’s socio-economic analysis identified the health sector as one of the sectors with the highest potential for increase of competitiveness in the economy, through research in the pharmaceutical and medical sciences. The programme also refers to opportunities for health tourism, noting that the public’s awareness of and demand for this is growing.

Direct health investment is planned in this programme, including e-health infrastructure for the public, within Priority 2 on economic development infrastructure. Priority 3, Integration of natural and cultural potentials, cites the population health benefits of expanding sports and recreational infrastructure.

The most important priority for considering the health impacts of non-health investments is Priority 4, Development of regions. This investment priority contains separate regional development programmes for each of the 12 statistical regions, which are based directly on the regional development plans, and therefore are considered to have a “bottom up” approach from a planning perspective. Nearly EUR620 million have been allocated for this priority, which is around 15% of the total allocated funding across all programmes. Pomurje region is set to receive EUR70 million of this total; this is the highest per capita allocation among the 12 regions.Improvement of population health is stated as a higher goal for the regional development priority, along with reduction in health inequalities.

Programme for promoting competitiveness of the Pomurje region 2010-2015

In addition to the support it will receive from all of the Structural Fund programmes (including its targeted regional development programme), Pomurje region benefits from a special government programme aimed at promoting development in the region. One rationale for this targeted investment is the conclusion that the funds allocated from the Structural Fund programmes for 2007-2013 are not sufficient to solve the problems that have emerged in the Pomurje region, particularly in light of the ongoing economic and financial crisis. The programme includes employment incentives, tax relief for investments and priority treatment for projects from Pomurje competing for national and EU funds (including Structural Funds) in a number of areas, including setting up a regional economic centre and an inter-company educational centre; restructuring of the agriculture and food-processing industries; and construction of drinking water supply infrastructure.[10] It provides an additional EUR 33 million in funding, to be combined with other sources.

The competitiveness programme is fully integrated with the support from the Structural Funds, and the government has established a temporary coordination office in the region to oversee the programme. As it is based on the Pomurje regional development plan, which has been developed with the input of a wide range of stakeholders, the programme retains the emphasis on the development of the region’s economic strengths in organic agriculture and health and wellness tourism.

Tables 1, 2 and 3: Overview of Slovenia Operational Programmes

OP Environmental and transport infrastructure development

MA: Government Office of the Republic of Slovenia for Local Self –Government and Regional Policy

Total EU allocation: EUR 1.63bn

Priority axis

Funds (€)

Percent of total

Content of priority

Briefing Sheets topic(s)

Health considerations in the priority

Railway infrastructure



Modernisation of railway lines

Construction of new railways



Road and port infrastructure



Construction of motorways

Development of port of Koper


Improvement of transport safety through motorway network and bypasses, educating and monitoring drivers

Transport infrastructure



New and modernised roads
& cycling lanes

Urban public transport

Airport infrastructure



Management of municipal waste



Waste management, sorting/separation and disposal

Infrastructure: waste


Environment protection – water sector



Collection and treatment of urban waste water

Drinking water supply

Flood/water management

Infrastructure: water

Improving health status of the population is a goal.

Indicators (population served by clean water supply, sewerage, decrease of exposure to pesticide, and other unhealthy pollutants.

Sustainable use of energy



Energy efficiency

Renewable energy

Development of domestic energy supply


Sustainable use of energy will reduce air pollution and contribute to public health improvements (in analysis)

Technical assistance







OP Strengthening Regional Development Potentials

MA: Government Office of the Republic of Slovenia for Local Self –Government and Regional Policy

Total EU allocation: EUR 1.71bn

Priority axis

Funds (€)

Percent of total

Content of priority


Briefing Sheets topic(s)

Health considerations in the priority

Competitiveness and research excellence



Encouraging competitive potential of enterprises and research excellence

Promotion of entrepreneurship



Economic development infrastructure



Economic development, logistics centres

Information society

Educational and research infrastructure



Publicly accessible digital databases addressing health

Integration of natural and cultural potentials




Increasing of tourism competitiveness

Networking of cultural potentials

Sports-recreational infrastructure*


Culture & heritage; social infrastructure

Expanding sports/recreational infrastructure contributes to health of the population

Development of regions




Regional programmes for:

Economic and educational infrastructure

Transport infrastructure

Environmental infrastructure

Development of urban areas

Natura 2000

Social infrastructure

(Nearly all)

Health improvement is a higher goal. Indicators address environmental health determinants – water supply, brownfields restoration

Reduction in health inequalities is a goal

Technical assistance







OP Human Resources Development

MA: Government Office of the Republic of Slovenia for Local Self –Government and Regional Policy

Total EU allocation: EUR 756m

Priority axis

Funds (€)

Percent of total

Content of priority


Briefing Sheets topic(s)

Health considerations in the priority

Promoting entrepreneurship and adaptability



Enhancement of business R&D capacities

Human resources in enterprises (training)

Promotion of entrepreneurship

RTD, Employment


Promoting employability of job-seekers and inactive



Training, counselling, support to unemployed



Human resource development and life-long learning




Education and training programmes

Higher education systems

Education & training


Equal opportunities and reinforcing social inclusion




Education and training for vulnerable groups

Social inclusion programmes, anti-discrimination

Education and training


Institutional and administrative capacity



Efficiency of public sector, incl health and justice

ICT, Institutional capacity


ICT in improving the effectiveness of health care; training and support for public sector health care workers

Technical assistance








Integrating health in the programmes

Overall, the stakeholders interviewed for this case study had a mixed impression of how health is integrated into Structural Fund programmes. Much of this is linked to the relationship between regionally developed plans and projects, and programmes prepared and implemented at the national level, as well as the nature of the Structural Fund process itself.

Regional/local approaches versus national priorities

Within the Pomurje region, public health is well understood to be an important component of socio-economic development. As previously mentioned, the region has specialised institutions which target public health and health and development, and has been running a dedicated investment programme this area since 2002 (Programme MURA). The regional development plan for Pomurje 2007-2013 places significant emphasis on the importance of public health for economic development, of tackling national and intra-regional health inequalities, and of considering health objectives in economic development priorities. Examples of the latter include the development of organic agriculture and locally sourced healthy food, and the development and promotion of health tourism in the region.

At the same time, the Structural Fund OPs in Slovenia do not reflect this consideration of health as a key socio-economic determinant. Consideration of health in the programmes – particularly in the specific investment priorities and measures that pave the way for investment projects – tends to be focused on direct investment in health, and, to a lesser extent, the health gains from environmental infrastructure improvements. As a result, calls for project proposals and the evaluation criteria that lead to funding decisions do not require or encourage projects to optimise or even identify their health gains.

There are a number of reasons for this, according to the Director for the Centre for Health and Development in Pomurje region. Paramount among these is the fact that Structural Fund programmes in Slovenia are planned at the national level, mainly by authorities with sectoral interests. A wide range of national level authorities (e.g. ministries) including the ministry of health are formally consulted during the preparation of the programmes, and prepare the parts of the programmes directly related to their sector (e.g. environmental infrastructure, transport, etc.). The health authorities’ first priority therefore tends to be securing funding for direct investment in health care or services. The horizontal “health in all areas” approach is a lower priority. Furthermore, very formal consultation processes limit the ability of sectoral authorities to integrate more complex or innovative approaches into the programmes, including concepts that cut across all sectors.

By contrast, according to the CHD Director, people at the local and regional level are more accustomed to thinking and working cross-sectorally, as this is an everyday requirement for their work. They are therefore better able to understand and develop the kinds of initiatives that integrate public health across all priorities, leading to better realisation and recognition of health gains. After nearly ten years of working together on the Programme MURA for health and development, the wide group of stakeholders continue to maintain the cooperation platform, based on pure interest rather than legal requirement. The group was instrumental in contributing to the preparation of the Pomurje regional development plan for 2007-2013, and is well-prepared to continue these efforts.

Furthermore, since the Structural Fund programmes are not managed or implemented at the regional level, there is limited regional coordination or overview of the projects carried out. The official from the Regional Development Agency (RDA) Mura commented that while the agency gives letters of support for projects that it believes meet regional priorities in line with the regional development programme, it is not always aware of what projects receive funding in the region through the national programmes. It is therefore not possible for the region to maintain a strategic overview of programme progress. This lack of a regional strategic perspective has been recognised as a weakness; the national programme for Pomurje is an attempt to reconcile this problem, and bring investments closer to regional priorities and stakeholders. In Pomurje, the officials interviewed believe this could have a positive impact on the role of public health in the programmes, particularly as a horizontal concern.

Administrative obstacles

National priorities are not only sectorally-oriented, but also focus on infrastructure spending. Since the volume of funds currently available through the EU Structural Funds exceeds that which the national government and other programmes can provide, the priority is to fund large infrastructure projects through these programmes. The result is that the programme implementation processes are set up to favour large-scale investments with immediate and tangible outputs (e.g. roads, water treatment infrastructure, economic infrastructure, and business support logistics) and lower administrative costs from the management perspective. According to the CMH Director, this means that smaller, “softer” interventions such as those that would target public health through employment, social inclusion and small-scale economic development tend to be included in either nationally-funded programmes or cross-border programmes.

Environmental linkages and assumptions

As mentioned, the programmes that fund environmental infrastructure and other improvements are linked closely with health gains. As environment is considered a horizontal priority within the EU regulations on Structural Funds, all proposed projects in Slovenia must meet certain environmental criteria, or at least not show any unjustifiable environmental harm. Furthermore, Strategic Environmental Assessment of programmes and Environmental Impact Assessment of proposed projects are EU and statutory requirements that should, in theory, ensure the consideration of health issues. While on the one hand, the prevention of negative environmental impacts through these “safeguard” procedures should limit negative health impacts of the programmes, they are not tools for broad-based integration of wider-public health issues into programmes. There is, however, a tendency to assume that environmental assessments are sufficient for addressing health objectives.

Project examples

There are a number of interesting projects carried out by the Centre for Health and Development in Pomorje region; however few of them are funded from the Slovenian national OPs.

The project Recreation in the nature – Hiking and Biking without Borders, with the acronym Hiking & Biking, stretches over three Slovene regions of Pomurje, Podravje, Koroška and neighbouring Austrian region of Styria. The framework of Recreation in the nature covers the following fields: hiking, biking and Nordic fitness. This operation is partially financed by the European Union from the European Regional Development Fund and is conducted under the Operational Programme Slovenia – Austria OP SI-AT 2007-2013.[11]

Other projects through the Centre for Health and Development can be found at may be useful links or summaries for the web-based guide.


Print sources

Structural Funds programme documents – all can be found at

National Strategic Reference Framework 2007-2013, The Republic of Slovenia, Government Office for Local Self-Government and Regional Policy, 2007 (English version, unofficial translation)

Operational programme of environmental and transport infrastructure development for the period 2007-2013, The Republic of Slovenia, Government Office for Local Self-Government and Regional Policy, 2007 (English version, unofficial translation)

Operational programme for Strengthening Regional Development Potentials for period 2007-2013, The Republic of Slovenia, Government Office for Local Self-Government and Regional Policy, 2007 (English version, unofficial translation)

Operational programme for Human Resources Development for the period 2007-2013, The Republic of Slovenia, Government Office for Local Self-Government and Regional Policy, 2007 (English version, unofficial translation)

Regional and health documents

Buzeti, Tatjana and Maucec Zakotnik, Jozica. Investment for Health and Development in Slovenia: Programme MURA, Centre for Health and Development Murska Sobota, 2008

Health and Structural funds in 2007-2013: country and regional assessment, Country assessment Slovenia, EUREGIO III project for DG Sanco, 2009

Programme for Promoting Competitiveness of the Pomurje Region 2010-2015; Government Office for Local Self-Government and Regional Policy, 2010

Regionalni Razvojni Program Pomurske Regije 2007-2013, (Pomurje Regional Development Programme) Regional Development Agency Mura d.o.o., 2007 POMURJE 2007-2013


Tatjana Buzeti, Director, Centre for Health and Development Murska Sobota, interviewed on 4 May 2011

Franc Gönc, Advisor to the Director, Regional Development Agency Mura, interviewed on 22 April 2011

Jurij Kobal, Oikos Consulting (supporting implementation of the Pomurje competitiveness programme and, also team leader for mid-term and ex-ante evaluations of the three Slovenian OPs for 2007-2013), based on written responses to interview questions and follow up discussion 28 March 2011

[1]NUTS is the hierarchical classification system used for dividing up the economic territory of the EU. Slovenia is comprised of two macro-regions at the NUTS 2 level and 12 statistical regions at the NUTS 3 level. For the purpose of EU Structural Funds, the entire territory of Slovenia is considered as a single region for funds eligibility.

[2]Buzeti, Tatjana and Maucec Zakotnik, Jozica. Investment for Health and Development in Slovenia: Programme MURA, Centre for Health and Development Murska Sobota, 2008

[3]Statistical Office of the Republic of Slovenia


[5]Buzeti and Maucec Zakotnik, 2008.

[7]Buzeti, Tatjana and Maucec Zakotnik, 2008.



[10]Act regulating development support to the Pomurje region in the period 2010-2015(Zapr 1015)